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Tec Startup Garage: BATCH 2 2021B

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Joshua James
Joshua James

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Corporate Governance !!BETTER!!



As more investors seek to align their portfolios with their values, asset managers and financial advisers are increasingly offering environmental, social, and governance (ESG) products and strategies. While investors certainly gravitate towards ESG options, the resulting market demand has created a financial incentive for advisers to brand strategies and investments as ESG even when the categorization may be a stretch.




CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Corporate Governance



The four P's of corporate governance are people, process, performance, and purpose."}},"@type": "Question","name": "Why Is Corporate Governance Important?","acceptedAnswer": "@type": "Answer","text": "Corporate governance is important because it creates a system of rules and practices that determines how a company operates and how it aligns the interest of all its stakeholders. Good corporate governance leads to ethical business practices, which leads to financial viability. In turn, that can attract investors.","@type": "Question","name": "What Are the Basic Principles of Corporate Governance?","acceptedAnswer": "@type": "Answer","text": "The basic principles of corporate governance are accountability, transparency, fairness, responsibility, and risk management."]}]}] Investing Stocks Bonds Fixed Income Mutual Funds ETFs Options 401(k) Roth IRA Fundamental Analysis Technical Analysis Markets View All Simulator Login / Portfolio Trade Research My Games Leaderboard Economy Government Policy Monetary Policy Fiscal Policy View All Personal Finance Financial Literacy Retirement Budgeting Saving Taxes Home Ownership View All News Markets Companies Earnings Economy Crypto Personal Finance Government View All Reviews Best Online Brokers Best Life Insurance Companies Best CD Rates Best Savings Accounts Best Personal Loans Best Credit Repair Companies Best Mortgage Rates Best Auto Loan Rates Best Credit Cards View All Academy Investing for Beginners Trading for Beginners Become a Day Trader Technical Analysis All Investing Courses All Trading Courses View All TradeSearchSearchPlease fill out this field.SearchSearchPlease fill out this field.InvestingInvesting Stocks Bonds Fixed Income Mutual Funds ETFs Options 401(k) Roth IRA Fundamental Analysis Technical Analysis Markets View All SimulatorSimulator Login / Portfolio Trade Research My Games Leaderboard EconomyEconomy Government Policy Monetary Policy Fiscal Policy View All Personal FinancePersonal Finance Financial Literacy Retirement Budgeting Saving Taxes Home Ownership View All NewsNews Markets Companies Earnings Economy Crypto Personal Finance Government View All ReviewsReviews Best Online Brokers Best Life Insurance Companies Best CD Rates Best Savings Accounts Best Personal Loans Best Credit Repair Companies Best Mortgage Rates Best Auto Loan Rates Best Credit Cards View All AcademyAcademy Investing for Beginners Trading for Beginners Become a Day Trader Technical Analysis All Investing Courses All Trading Courses View All Financial Terms Newsletter About Us Follow Us Facebook Instagram LinkedIn TikTok Twitter YouTube Table of ContentsExpandTable of ContentsWhat Is Corporate Governance?How It WorksBoard of DirectorsPrinciplesModelsAssessing Corporate GovernanceExamplesCorporate Governance FAQsThe Bottom LineBusinessCorporate FinanceCorporate Governance Definition: How It Works, Principles, and ExamplesLearn how these rules, practices, and processes impacts your investments


Corporate governance is important because it creates a system of rules and practices that determines how a company operates and how it aligns the interest of all its stakeholders. Good corporate governance leads to ethical business practices, which leads to financial viability. In turn, that can attract investors.


A cornerstone of governance at Pfizer is our shareholder outreach program, through which we regularly engage with our investors and stakeholders around the world to gain insight into the burgeoning issues at the forefront of their business policies and guidelines. We aim to seek a more collaborative approach to specific issues of importance to us and our industry. Shareholder input helps us to continue to drive innovations in policies and disclosures on corporate political activities and other key governance areas.


Regulatory reforms have resulted in the transformation of the corporate governance landscape and Pfizer has embraced these amendments, and in some cases has been ahead of the game in adopting innovations that are now requirements. It is essential that we practice responsible business principles, and continue to demonstrate our commitment to excellence to sustain value for our investors and stakeholders.


Corporate governance is therefore about what the board of a company does and how it sets the values of the company, and it is to be distinguished from the day to day operational management of the company by full-time executives.


In the UK for listed companies corporate governance it is part of the legal system as the latest UK Corporate Governance Code applies to accounting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019 and,, applies to all companies with a premium listing of equity shares regardless of whether they are incorporated in the UK or elsewhere.


Corporate governance is defined, described or delineated in diverse ways, depending on the writer's purpose. Writers focused on a disciplinary interest or context (such as accounting, finance, law, or management) often adopt narrow definitions that appear purpose-specific. Writers concerned with regulatory policy in relation to corporate governance practices often use broader structural descriptions. A broad (meta) definition that encompasses many adopted definitions is "Corporate governance describes the processes, structures, and mechanisms that influence the control and direction of corporations."[1]


This meta definition accommodates both the narrow definitions used in specific contexts and the broader descriptions that are often presented as authoritative. The latter include: the structural definition from the Cadbury Report, which identifies corporate governance as "the system by which companies are directed and controlled" (Cadbury 1992, p. 15); and the relational-structural view adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) of "Corporate governance involves a set of relationships between a company's management, its board, its shareholders and other stakeholders. Corporate governance also provides the structure through which the objectives of the company are set, and the means of attaining those objectives and monitoring performance are determined" (OECD 2015, p.9).[2]


An example of a possible conflict between shareholders and upper management materializes through stock repurchases (treasury stock). Executives may have incentive to divert cash surpluses to buying treasury stock to support or increase the share price. However, that reduces the financial resources available to maintain or enhance profitable operations. As a result, executives can sacrifice long-term profits for short-term personal gain. Shareholders may have different perspectives in this regard, depending on their own time preferences, but it can also be viewed as a conflict with broader corporate interests (including preferences of other stakeholders and the long-term health of the corporation).


An important theme of governance is the nature and extent of corporate accountability. A related discussion at the macro level focuses on the effect of a corporate governance system on economic efficiency, with a strong emphasis on shareholders' welfare.[8] This has resulted in a literature focused on economic analysis.[34][35][36]


Different models of corporate governance differ according to the variety of capitalism in which they are embedded. The Anglo-American "model" tends to emphasize the interests of shareholders. The coordinated or multistakeholder model associated with Continental Europe and Japan also recognizes the interests of workers, managers, suppliers, customers, and the community. A related distinction is between market-oriented and network-oriented models of corporate governance.[37]


Some continental European countries, including Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands, require a two-tiered board of directors as a means of improving corporate governance.[38] In the two-tiered board, the executive board, made up of company executives, generally runs day-to-day operations while the supervisory board, made up entirely of non-executive directors who represent shareholders and employees, hires and fires the members of the executive board, determines their compensation, and reviews major business decisions.[39]


The so-called "Anglo-American model" of corporate governance emphasizes the interests of shareholders. It relies on a single-tiered board of directors that is normally dominated by non-executive directors elected by shareholders. Because of this, it is also known as "the unitary system".[40][41] Within this system, many boards include some executives from the company (who are ex officio members of the board). Non-executive directors are expected to outnumber executive directors and hold key posts, including audit and compensation committees. In the United Kingdom, the CEO generally does not also serve as chairman of the board, whereas in the US having the dual role has been the norm, despite major misgivings regarding the effect on corporate governance.[42] The number of US firms combining both roles is declining, however.[43] 041b061a72


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