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Archipp Tikhonov
Archipp Tikhonov

Learn Bioseparations Principles and Techniques with B. Sivasankar's Ebook Free 15



- What are the main principles and techniques of bioseparations - Who is B. Sivasankar and what is his book about H2: Filtration - Definition and types of filtration - Applications and advantages of filtration in bioseparations - Examples of filtration devices and methods H2: Centrifugation - Definition and types of centrifugation - Applications and advantages of centrifugation in bioseparations - Examples of centrifugation devices and methods H2: Adsorption - Definition and types of adsorption - Applications and advantages of adsorption in bioseparations - Examples of adsorption materials and methods H2: Extraction - Definition and types of extraction - Applications and advantages of extraction in bioseparations - Examples of extraction solvents and methods H2: Membrane separation - Definition and types of membrane separation - Applications and advantages of membrane separation in bioseparations - Examples of membrane materials and methods H2: Chromatography - Definition and types of chromatography - Applications and advantages of chromatography in bioseparations - Examples of chromatography columns and methods H2: Gel filtration - Definition and principle of gel filtration - Applications and advantages of gel filtration in bioseparations - Examples of gel filtration media and methods H2: Affinity and pseudoaffinity chromatography - Definition and principle of affinity and pseudoaffinity chromatography - Applications and advantages of affinity and pseudoaffinity chromatography in bioseparations - Examples of affinity and pseudoaffinity ligands and methods H2: Ion-exchange chromatography - Definition and principle of ion-exchange chromatography - Applications and advantages of ion-exchange chromatography in bioseparations - Examples of ion-exchange resins and methods H2: Electrophoresis - Definition and types of electrophoresis - Applications and advantages of electrophoresis in bioseparations - Examples of electrophoresis gels and methods H1: Conclusion - Summary of the main points covered in the article - Recommendations for further reading or learning about bioseparations - Call to action for downloading the ebook by B. Sivasankar for free H1: FAQs - What are the challenges or limitations of bioseparations? - What are the emerging trends or innovations in bioseparations? - How can I learn more about bioseparations? - Where can I find the ebook by B. Sivasankar for free? - How can I contact B. Sivasankar for feedback or questions? # Article with HTML formatting Introduction


Bioseparations, also known as downstream processing, is the process of separating, purifying, and recovering biological products from complex mixtures such as cell culture broth, fermentation broth, blood plasma, urine, milk, etc. Bioseparations are essential for the production of biopharmaceuticals, vaccines, enzymes, hormones, antibodies, biosensors, biomaterials, biofuels, food additives, cosmetics, etc.




bioseparations principles and techniques by b sivasankar ebook free 15



Bioseparations involve various principles and techniques that are derived from physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, biochemistry, biological science, and chemical engineering. Some of the common techniques include filtration, centrifugation, adsorption, extraction, membrane separation, chromatography, gel filtration, affinity and pseudoaffinity chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, electrophoresis, etc. These techniques are based on different physical or chemical properties of the biomolecules such as size, shape, charge, polarity, solubility, affinity, etc.


One of the most comprehensive and well-balanced books that covers the theoretical principles and techniques involved in bioseparations is BIOSPERATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES by B. Sivasankar. B. Sivasankar, Ph.D., is a professor of chemistry at Anna University, Chennai, India. He has over 25 years of experience in teaching postgraduate students of science and engineering and has published several research articles in reputed scientific journals. His book, published by PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. in 2005, compresses within the covers of a single volume the essential concepts and methods of bioseparations with relevant examples and applications.


In this article, we will review some of the main principles and techniques of bioseparations as discussed in the book by B. Sivasankar and also provide you with a link to download the ebook for free.


Filtration


Filtration is a technique that separates solid particles from a liquid or gas by passing the mixture through a porous medium that retains the solid particles and allows the liquid or gas to pass through. The porous medium is called a filter and can be made of paper, cloth, metal, ceramic, membrane, etc. The solid particles that are retained on the filter are called the filter cake and the liquid or gas that passes through the filter is called the filtrate.


Filtration is widely used in bioseparations for various purposes such as clarifying cell culture broth or fermentation broth, removing cell debris or microorganisms, concentrating or washing biomolecules, etc. Filtration can be classified into different types based on the driving force, the mode of operation, the nature of the filter medium, etc. Some of the common types of filtration are gravity filtration, vacuum filtration, pressure filtration, cross-flow filtration, dead-end filtration, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, etc.


Filtration has several advantages in bioseparations such as simplicity, low cost, scalability, versatility, high throughput, low energy consumption, etc. However, filtration also has some limitations such as clogging or fouling of the filter medium, loss of product due to adsorption or degradation on the filter medium, difficulty in cleaning or regenerating the filter medium, etc. Therefore, proper selection and optimization of the filtration parameters such as filter medium type and size, flow rate, pressure difference, temperature, pH, etc. are important for achieving efficient and effective bioseparations.


Some examples of filtration devices and methods used in bioseparations are plate-and-frame filter press, rotary drum filter, leaf filter, candle filter, bag filter, cartridge filter, membrane filter module, tangential flow filtration system (TFF), etc.


Centrifugation


Centrifugation is a technique that separates solid particles or liquid droplets from a liquid by applying a centrifugal force that causes them to move away from the center of rotation. The centrifugal force depends on the mass and size of the particles or droplets and the rotational speed of the device. The device that generates the centrifugal force is called a centrifuge and can be made of metal or plastic with different shapes and sizes.


Centrifugation is widely used in bioseparations for various purposes such as harvesting cells or microorganisms from cell culture broth or fermentation broth, separating cell components such as nuclei or organelles, isolating biomolecules such as proteins or DNA, purifying viruses or nanoparticles, etc. Centrifugation can be classified into different types based on the mode of operation, the design of the centrifuge, the nature of the feed material, etc. Some of the common types of centrifugation are batch centrifugation, continuous centrifugation, differential centrifugation, density gradient centrifugation, isopycnic centrifugation, zonal centrifugation, etc.


Centrifugation has several advantages in bioseparations such as high speed, high capacity, high resolution, low cost, scalability, versatility, etc. However, centrifugation also has some limitations such as high energy consumption, high shear stress, high maintenance, difficulty in cleaning or sterilizing the centrifuge, loss of product due to adsorption or degradation on the centrifuge wall or rotor, etc. Therefore, proper selection and optimization of the centrifugation parameters such as centrifuge type and size, rotational speed, feed flow rate, temperature, pH, etc. are important for achieving efficient and effective bioseparations.


Some examples of centrifuge devices and methods used in bioseparations are tubular bowl centrifuge, disc-stack centrifuge, Adsorption


Adsorption is a technique that separates molecules from a liquid or gas by attaching them to the surface of a solid material that has a high affinity for them. The solid material is called an adsorbent and can be made of activated carbon, silica gel, alumina, zeolite, ion-exchange resin, etc. The molecules that are attached to the adsorbent are called adsorbate and the liquid or gas that remains after adsorption is called effluent.


Adsorption is widely used in bioseparations for various purposes such as removing impurities or contaminants from biomolecules, concentrating or purifying biomolecules, separating biomolecules based on their affinity or specificity, etc. Adsorption can be classified into different types based on the mechanism, the nature of the adsorbent, the mode of operation, etc. Some of the common types of adsorption are physical adsorption, chemical adsorption, reversible adsorption, irreversible adsorption, batch adsorption, continuous adsorption, fixed-bed adsorption, fluidized-bed adsorption, etc.


Adsorption has several advantages in bioseparations such as high selectivity, high capacity, low cost, scalability, versatility, etc. However, adsorption also has some limitations such as low recovery, low throughput, difficulty in desorbing or regenerating the adsorbent, loss of product due to adsorption or degradation on the adsorbent surface, etc. Therefore, proper selection and optimization of the adsorption parameters such as adsorbent type and size, feed concentration and flow rate, temperature, pH, etc. are important for achieving efficient and effective bioseparations.


Some examples of adsorption devices and methods used in bioseparations are packed-bed column, expanded-bed column, simulated moving-bed column (SMB), rotary valve column (RVC), pressure swing adsorption (PSA), temperature swing adsorption (TSA), etc.


Extraction


Extraction is a technique that separates molecules from a liquid by transferring them to another liquid that has a higher solubility for them. The two liquids are called phases and are usually immiscible or partially miscible with each other. The phase that contains the molecules to be separated is called the feed phase and the phase that receives the molecules after extraction is called the extract phase. The phase that remains after extraction is called the raffinate phase.


Extraction is widely used in bioseparations for various purposes such as removing impurities or contaminants from biomolecules, concentrating or purifying biomolecules, separating biomolecules based on their polarity or solubility, etc. Extraction can be classified into different types based on the nature of the phases, the mode of operation, the design of the device, etc. Some of the common types of extraction are liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-liquid extraction (SLE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE), micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF), cloud point extraction (CPE), etc.


Extraction has several advantages in bioseparations such as high efficiency, high selectivity, low cost, scalability, versatility, etc. However, extraction also has some limitations such as low recovery, low throughput, difficulty in separating or recovering the phases, loss of product due to extraction or degradation in the phases, environmental or safety issues due to toxic or flammable solvents, etc. Therefore, proper selection and optimization of the extraction parameters such as phase type and ratio, feed concentration and flow rate, temperature, pH, etc. are important for achieving efficient and effective bioseparations.


Some examples of extraction devices and methods used in bioseparations are mixer-settler, centrifugal extractor, rotating disc contactor (RDC), spray column, packed column, extraction membrane module, etc.


Membrane separation


Membrane separation is a technique that separates molecules from a liquid or gas by passing them through a thin layer of material that has selective permeability for them. The thin layer of material is called a membrane and can be made of polymer, ceramic, metal, etc. The molecules that pass through the membrane are called permeate and the liquid or gas that remains after membrane separation is called retentate.


Membrane separation is widely used in bioseparations for various purposes such as removing impurities or contaminants from biomolecules, concentrating or purifying biomolecules, separating biomolecules based on their size or charge, etc. Membrane separation can be classified into different types based on the driving force, the mechanism, the nature of the membrane, etc. Some of the common types of membrane separation are microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO), dialysis, electrodialysis (ED), pervaporation (PV), gas permeation (GP), etc.


Membrane separation has several advantages in bioseparations such as high efficiency, high selectivity, low cost, scalability, versatility, low energy consumption, etc. However, membrane separation also has some limitations such as low recovery, low throughput, fouling or clogging of the membrane, loss of product due to adsorption or degradation on the membrane surface, difficulty in cleaning or regenerating the membrane, etc. Therefore, proper selection and optimization of the membrane separation parameters such as membrane type and size, feed concentration and flow rate, pressure difference, temperature, pH, etc. are important for achieving efficient and effective bioseparations.


Some examples of membrane separation devices and methods used in bioseparations are spiral-wound module, hollow-fiber module, flat-sheet module, tubular module, plate-and-frame module, membrane bioreactor (MBR), membrane distillation (MD), etc.


Chromatography


Chromatography is a technique that separates molecules from a liquid or gas by passing them through a stationary phase that has different affinities for them. The liquid or gas that contains the molecules to be separated is called the mobile phase and can be water, organic solvent, buffer solution, air, etc. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid that is coated or immobilized on a solid support such as silica gel, alumina, cellulose, agarose, etc. The molecules that are separated by chromatography are called analytes and the device that performs chromatography is called a chromatograph.


Chromatography is widely used in bioseparations for various purposes such as removing impurities or contaminants from biomolecules, concentrating or purifying biomolecules, separating biomolecules based on their affinity or specificity, identifying or quantifying biomolecules, etc. Chromatography can be classified into different types based on the mechanism, the nature of the stationary and mobile phases, the mode of operation, etc. Some of the common types of chromatography are adsorption chromatography, partition chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography, affinity chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), reversed-phase chromatography (RPC), normal-phase chromatography (NPC), etc.


Chromatography has several advantages in bioseparations such as high resolution, high selectivity, high capacity, low cost, scalability, versatility, etc. However, chromatography also has some limitations such as low recovery, low throughput, fouling or deactivation of the stationary phase, loss of product due to adsorption or degradation on the stationary phase surface, difficulty in cleaning or regenerating the stationary phase, environmental or safety issues due to toxic or flammable solvents, etc. Therefore, proper selection and optimization of the chromatography parameters such as stationary phase type and size, mobile phase type and composition, feed concentration and flow rate, temperature, pH, etc. are important for achieving efficient and effective bioseparations.


Gel filtration


Gel filtration, also known as size-exclusion chromatography or molecular sieve chromatography, is a type of chromatography that separates molecules based on their size or molecular weight. The stationary phase is a porous gel that has different pore sizes that allow smaller molecules to enter and larger molecules to be excluded. The mobile phase is a buffer solution that carries the molecules through the gel. The molecules that have larger size or molecular weight elute faster than the molecules that have smaller size or molecular weight.


Gel filtration is widely used in bioseparations for various purposes such as removing impurities or contaminants from biomolecules, concentrating or purifying biomolecules, separating biomolecules based on their size or molecular weight, determining the molecular weight or size distribution of biomolecules, etc. Gel filtration can be performed in different modes such as analytical gel filtration, preparative gel filtration, high-performance gel filtration (HPGF), fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC), etc.


Gel filtration has several advantages in bioseparations such as high resolution, high selectivity, high capacity, low cost, scalability, versatility, etc. However, gel filtration also has some limitations such as low recovery, low throughput, fouling or deactivation of the gel, loss of product due to adsorption or degradation on the gel surface, difficulty in cleaning or regenerating the gel, etc. Therefore, proper selection and optimization of the gel filtration parameters such as gel type and size, buffer type and composition, feed concentration and flow rate, temperature, pH, etc. are important for achieving efficient and effective bioseparations.


Some examples of gel filtration media and methods used in bioseparations are Sephadex, Sephacryl, Superdex, Superose, Bio-Gel, Sephadex Fast Flow, Sephacryl High Resolution, Superdex Peptide, Superose 12, Bio-Gel P, etc.


Affinity and pseudoaffinity chromatography


Affinity and pseudoaffinity chromatography are types of chromatography that separate molecules based on their affinity or specificity for a ligand that is immobilized on the stationary phase. The ligand can be a biological molecule such as an enzyme, an antibody, a receptor, a lectin, a nucleic acid, etc. or a synthetic molecule that mimics a biological molecule such as a dye, a metal ion, a boronate group, etc. The mobile phase is a buffer solution that carries the molecules through the stationary phase. The molecules that have high affinity or specificity for the ligand bind to the stationary phase and elute later than the molecules that have low affinity or specificity for the ligand.


Affinity and pseudoaffinity chromatography are widely used in bioseparations for various purposes such as removing impurities or contaminants from biomolecules, concentrating or purifying biomolecules, separating biomolecules based on their affinity or specificity for a ligand, identifying or quantifying biomolecules, etc. Affinity and pseudoaffinity chromatography can be performed in different modes such as analytical affinity chromatography, preparati


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